Country Profile: Denmark

Denmark played a key role in UN peacekeeping operations during the Cold War, contributing forces, developing doctrine and training manuals and programs in close cooperation with the other Nordic countries. It continued to do so in the first half of the 1990s making significant contributions to UNPROFOR and establishing and hosting the Standby High-Readiness Brigade (SHIRBRIG), a multi-national rapid reaction brigade earmarked for UN peacekeeping operations, which became operational in 1997. Read more in our newly updated Providing for Peacekeeping country profile on Denmark by Dr. Peter Viggo JakobsenRoyal Danish Defence College and Center for War Studies, University of Southern...

Country Profile: Colombia

Colombia’s participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping missions began when a Colombian Armed Forces infantry battalion was sent for military observation to the Suez Canal and the Sinai Peninsula, as part of the UN Emergency Force (UNEF I, 1956–67). In 1982, Bogotá sent troops to the Sinai Peninsula under the Multinational Force of Observers (MFO): Colombia still maintains over 350 observers in this mission. In the 1990s, it contributed military observers and police personnel to the UN Observer Group in Central America (ONUCA, 1989–92), the UN Observer Group for the Verification of the Elections in Haiti (ONUVEH, 1990–91), the UN Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II, 1991–95), the UN Observer Mission in El Salvador (ONUSAL, 1991–95), the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC, 1992–93), the UN Protection Force (UNPROFOR, 1992–95) in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the UN Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGUA, 1997), and the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (2004–today). Furthermore, Colombia contributed to the Organization of American States’ (OAS) 1990s demining program in Honduras and the Special Mission for Strengthening Democracy in Haiti (2002-06). Read more on our new country profile on Colombia by Fernando A. Chinchilla and Janneth A....

Country Profile: Guatemala

Guatemala’s provision of military personnel in UN peacekeeping began in 1994-95 with a small contingent in the UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH). Guatemala also hosted a peacekeeping mission in 1997: the UN Verification Mission in Guatemala (MINUGA), which oversaw the implementation of the Peace Accords that ended the 36-year civil war. This experience provided an understanding of the mechanisms and structures that are needed for successful peacekeeping. To date, Guatemala has contributed to UN peacekeeping forces in Haiti, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Darfur, Lebanon, South Sudan, Nepal and the Ivory Coast. As part of its contribution to UN peacekeeping, Guatemala has deployed three types of contingents: Kaibil Special Forces who served in MONUSCO in the DRC; military police, who participated in MINUSTAH in Haiti; and individual officers assigned as military observers to MONUSCO, MINUSTAH, ONUCI, UNMISS, UNIFIL, UNISFA and MINUSCA. Read more in our new profile on Guatemala by Orlando J....

Enhanced AU-UN collaboration is a non-negotiable.

As the African Union (AU) has become a stronger actor in peace operations, coordination with the United Nations Security Council has risen in importance. Beyond just working together on a case-by-case basis, such as the Somalia hybrid mission, the two organizations are seeking a broader and more complimentary relationship. In the last year, we have witnessed an increasing convergence with the development of the AU Common Position on the Peace Operations Review and Joint UN-AU Framework for an Enhanced Partnership in Peace and Security. These were followed by the recommendations stressing the important of partnership with regional organizations from High-level Independent Panel on Peace Operations (HIPPO) and the Secretary-General’s response to this seminal report. But it is not an easy task for the two organizations to converge. As preparations for a recent high-level meeting showed, there remain some institutional and political challenges that make working together inherently difficult for both organizations. Competing agendas The 10th annual Joint Consultative Meeting between the UN Security Council (UNSC) and the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council (PSC) was held in New York on 23-25 May 2016. The meeting’s final agenda was set to discuss the crisis in Burundi and the mandate of the African Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), which expires at the end of May. It was dictated by the UNSC, with little compromise over the issues raised by the AU. The initial agenda proposed by the AU PSC members in mid-April included discussions on Western Sahara, South Sudan, Libya, Somalia, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, and countering terrorism and violent extremism – all key challenges on the continent with global implications. On 25...

Country Profile: Tanzania

Tanzania has contributed uniformed UN peacekeepers in various parts of the world since 1995. It currently contributes peacekeepers in six UN missions in Africa and UNIFIL in Lebanon. Tanzania’s contributions are largely informed by its history of African liberation, conflict prevention and peace processes, especially in African countries. Regionally, Tanzania has shown willingness to participate and contribute both in terms of security and military cooperation. Under the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA), Tanzania is part of its African Standby Force’s (ASF). Specifically, Tanzania, falls under the Southern African Development Community (SADC) and in 2007 signed the agreement to become part of the SADC Standby Brigade. In 2013, Tanzania was one of three states that contributed a battalion of soldiers to the Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) as part of the UN Mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO). The FIB was established in March 2013 following the signing of the Framework Agreement for Peace, Security, and Cooperation for the DRC and the Region and UN Security Council Resolution 2098. It was one outcome of a larger debate about the need for more robust use of force by some UN peacekeeping missions. The Intervention Brigade subsequently helped in defeating the M23 rebels. Tanzania’s Foreign Minister Bernard Membe said his country’s contribution of a battalion of troops as well as the first FIB commander, Brig. Gen. James Mwakibolwa, was “to help our neighbors and be advocates for peace”. However, Tanzania’s contribution was seen as a geopolitical balance and a counter to the Rwandan government, which was accused of supporting the M23 rebel group. Bernard Membe had also directly accused the...
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